Analyzing Fairness as an Impact

Lindsey Dahms-Nolan | Aug 23, 2021
7 min read

The Opinions Expressed In This Blog Post Are Solely Those of the Author And Not Necessarily Those Of DebateDrills


What do you need to win in order to win fairness as an impact? This is a question that T-framework debaters struggle with, particularly when first learning this argument. As debater, I was staunchly in favor of taking fairness into all of my framework 2NRs. As someone who now coaches other students, my opinion has changed only slightly. The problem, however, remains: articulating why fairness is relevant is a daunting task. We have all heard examples meant to prove this, such as “imagine the negative getting an hour-long 1NC before a four minute 1AR” or “one side not getting the topic in advance”. These thought exercises are of limited utility, however - even if they establish instances where fairness may be useful, they don’t ever explain what fairness is or how it should be compared to the Aff’s impacts.

Is Framework The Best Option?

The ironic reality of many T-framework debates is that the best policy strategies against a number of critical affs may not always be framework, but perhaps a well-constructed counterplan and disad, paired with specific case-offense. Too often, it is far more tempting to look at a planless aff and choose to read T than it is to invest in prep that exploits the aff’s relationship to the resolution to generate a unique source of offense. This is because framework is often “low-hanging fruit” since you can read it regardless of the Aff. It is easier to invest time in preparing cross-ex questions about limits, fairness, and definition cards than it is to drill on how to set up disad links in cross-ex, or even in do a close read of 1AC cards you may be entirely unfamiliar with. I urge policy-oriented debaters to do that work, and to begin strategy discussions from a place of engagement. Of course, not every Aff will have a clear disad link or the ability to be neatly solved through even the most creative counterplan, but there are plenty that do. 

I am not trying to say that T-framework is an inherently obfuscatory position - most of the choices we make in debate are strategic ones, framework included. However, it is important to recognize how framework can be used as a tool to avoid clash. I believe that T-framework should be in 1NCs vs K affs for debaters who gravitate towards CPs, T, and DAs. I also believe that those 1NCs should be diversified with relevant CPs and DA links, whether DAs are case-specific analytics or topic generics. Again, this is context-dependent; no two K affs are the same and the extent to which topic generics link will vary. What I hope to get across is that too often debaters pigeonhole themselves into 1-off framework debates because of the assumption that framework is always the best, simplest, and most strategic option. 

Stay Current

T-framework should be debated as a complex, prep-intensive argument, where your debating evolves with the times. If you go for this argument often but read from blocks written a year or even six months ago, you are behind. Winning T-framework requires in-depth topic analysis and research, as with any other T violation. Generic ground and fairness blocks may serve as a base for your file, but answers to counter-interpretations and even “generic” blocks should be edited and updated with every new topic. The point of reading T-framework should not be to say “you break the rules, therefore I should win”, but rather to engage in the discussion of what debate could look like. 

The Aff should--and often will--be reading cards specific to the topic and why resolutional debates cannot solve their offense. You’ll want to make sure you’re prepped on why the particular topic can be a valuable stasis point for the conversations they want to have. 

Why Framework?

The most enriching and educational experiences I had as a debater were during framework rounds, especially when I lost. These rounds present rare opportunities for us to question our assumptions about debate, not only through the discussion of its rules but of debate’s purpose. Why do we keep showing up? What is the value of this activity? This brings us back to the question of fairness. As a coach, I encourage debaters to read fairness impacts for their strategic value. I also encourage you to grapple with the question of why fairness is relevant and to do so with a full understanding of the history of these activities. Questions of who can access fairness, what it means in different contexts, and of the merit of preserving procedural fairness are important ones because they shape how we engage the activity. 

The truth is that our social locations and identities as well as disparities in resources between squads make debate, to some extent, inherently unfair.  That does not mean that procedural fairness should then become the default for how we measure rounds, or that debate is destined to remain entrenched in powerful and oppressive institutional structures that produce harm. It does mean that to ignore this context in fairness debates is to squander opportunities to question how the activity functions and our roles in it. I believe that debate is a game - a strategic activity wherein two sides agree to a set of rules in order to determine an eventual winner. What makes it worthwhile is that, unlike other games, debate is constantly evolving. We have opportunities to question and even change the rules, but this can only happen when both parties choose to engage each other. To effectively go for T--particularly with fairness impacts--requires analyzing it against this backdrop, to effectively frame T and go for it in a way that can foster engagement.

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